Norwegian / Norsk Sort the data by a given field and then display the internal table. Edit this logical ERD example. A partner falls into one of four classes a Policy Holder Division, a Client, a Non-Client Beneficiary or a Benefit Service Provider. Physical Number of the Cheque which was printed on it. Entity Type:                           Subtype, Beneficiary is a Partner, Primary Identifier:                Partner Number, Relationships:                        •           Beneficiary is a Partner. Logical Data Independence : Logical Data Independence is defined as the ability to make changes in the structure of the middle level of the Database Management System (DBMS) without affecting the highest-level schema or application programs. Whole Number of Years from the difference between CLAIMS.LACCDT and CLIENT.CBTHDT; Null if either is Null. A deduced revenue value for the revenue from interest, A deduced revenue value for the revenue from penalties and administration fees, The most recent Due Date of all outstanding debits, The oldest Due Date of all outstanding debits. An example of logical vs. physical data flow analysis. This is deduced using the assumption that all A/R transactions except receipts and refunds impact revenue. Portuguese/Portugal / Português/Portugal The result of physical database design is a database model showing all the tables, their columns, and their keys. Volume:                                  170,000, Look-up based upon cross-reference retained with the Partner, Entity:                                    Claim. Korean / 한국어 There are also several examples where this logical model is not in third normal form. A good example is customers data - it can be held in multiple databases - eCommerce, CRM, ERP or data warehouse. The portion of the net outstanding balance of the receivable which is attributed to past-due interest. Greek / Ελληνικά Bulgarian / Български Principal Information:          The principal information retained by the Research Data Base about a Client, in addition to what is retained for a Partner, are some personal statistics such as gender and date of birth. Physical ERD represents the actual design blueprint of a relational database. For example, a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary facts by store, product, and time, which are three common business perspectives typically associated with a retail business. Volume:                                  35,000, Cross-reference ARTRANS.FIRM and ARTRANS.DIVISN, Sum of ARTRANS.R1OAMT with its corresponding ARTRANS.T40TYP = “IN”, Summation of ARTRANS.R1AMT excluding ARTRANS.T40TYP = {IN,PR,PN,AF, RF}, Summation of ARTRANS.R1AMT where ARTRANS.T40TYP =”IN”, Summation of ARTRANS.R1AMT where ARTRANS.T40TYP = {PN,AF}, Latest  (Maximum) ARTRANS.R1DUE with ARTRANS.R1STS = “Y”, Earliest (Minimum) ARTRANS.R1DUE with ARTRANS.R1STS = “Y”, Code Tables needed for Research Data Base, Client, Policy Holder Division, Policy Holder Firm, Consolidated Claim, TBRGNCD – copy Codes and Description only, Policy Holder Division, Annual Premium Rate, TBCRC – copy Codes and primary Description only, Policy Holder Division and Considered Claim, TBCONTCT – copy only Codes which are considered Providers versus Agents, TBCONTCT – copy only Codes which are considered Agents versus Benefit Service Providers, TBOCCUP – copy Codes and primary Description only, TBNATURE – copy Codes and primary Description only, TBCAUSE – copy Codes and primary Description only, TBRGNINJ – copy Codes and primary Description only, TBSOURCE – copy Codes and primary Description only, Claim Benefit, Benefit Program, Program Cost Account, Program Cost Summary, Reserve Transfer, Benefit Payment, Designed by implementation team based upon knowledge of the aspects users wish to track, Consolidate, making each code unique, Compensation Categories (TBMANPAY), Medical Aid Categories (TBMAEXPL) and Pension Categories (TBPENPAY), Payment Cross-Reference: Maps CPS Payment Area (M,C,P) and their categories to Program Area and Payment Category, Content based upon Program Area and Payment Category tables, Your email address will not be published. Employers place a high value on workers who display strong logical thinking or reasoning skills because their decision making is based on factual data. For example, data from two tables is joined to form a more denormalized structure, or derived and aggregated data is added to existing tables. Spanish / Español Physical database modeling deals with designing the actual database based on the requirements gathered during logical database modeling. • Monthly activity summaries will be used wherever a summary is warranted; annual summaries are to be dynamically derived from the monthly. In particular, there is nothing explicitly temporal about it. Logical data model example. Let’s say your HR department has an outdated approach and system for tracking job applicants. Count of unique Claim numbers in the Payment a files, assumption is a payment implies accepted claim {or count of Considered Claims with Accepted =”Yes”? Volume:                                  350,000, CLAIM.FIRM and CLAIM.DIVISN if this is not an internal account otherwise use FRMCHGHT.B1PVFM  and FRMCHGHT.B1PVDV of most recent FRMCHGHT record where the B1PVFM is not an internal account otherwise use Null, Cannot be future. Before discussing the difference between logical and physical data model, we must know what a data model is. Finnish / Suomi Catalan / Català Craig Borysowich has over 30 years of Technology Consulting experience with both public and private sector clients, including ten years in Project Leadership roles. Identifies the Group Insurer’s Division deemed to be the policy holding employer at the time of the incident. A Client is an individual person who has made known (directly or indirectly) to GroupCO that he has experienced what may be deemed to be a work related injury or illness. Most recent date the claim adjudication processing status became Closed. © 1995-2020 Toolbox is among the trademarks of, Sample Research Database Logical Data Model, Software Asset Management: Optimizing Software Will Be a Top Focus in 2021, Balancing CX with Data Regulation: New IBM, Red Hat and Adobe Collaboration Offers New Avenues For Regulated Industries, The SMB Digital Transformation Story: Samsung Adds AppStack to the Mix, (Policy Holder,Provider,Client, Beneficiary). The sequence in which the data is supplied to the program is determined by a tree structure. Comparing the logical data model shown above with the conceptual data model diagram, we see the main differences between the two: In a logical data model, primary keys are present, whereas in a conceptual data model, no primary key is present. Craig has an extensive background in working with large scale, high-profile systems integration and development projects that span throughout a customers organization. This is the key concept of the logical data model. Database Program (ABAP coding to read the data) Here is a sample ABAP program to read a ldb. The summarized values retained for each partner will be derived from the payment and letters history files. Physical Data Dictionary covers one database or one schema, while Logical Data Dictionary covers one business domain or even entire organization. An example of … We'll send an email with a link to reset your password. The following statements should be used to assist in interpreting the diagram: • Each Entity is represented as a rectangle; its name appears inside the rectangle. Hence, modification in the logical level should not result in any changes in the view levels or application programs. German / Deutsch The total activity is retained as attributes of a Partner while a monthly summary of the activity is retained in the Partner Activity Summary. Description:                           A claim is the GroupCO internal documentation on an incident or situation which may be deemed to be a work related injury or illness, and that may qualify for GroupCO benefits, and which an individual person (Client) has made known (directly or indirectly) to the GroupCO. Ein Logical, auf deutsch Logikrätsel, ist ein Rätsel, das nur durch logische Schlussfolgerungen lösbar ist.Das bekannteste dürfte wohl das Einstein-Rätsel sein, das auch unter dem Namen Zebrarätsel bekannt ist. What is logical thinking and why is it important to employers? Data Independence is defined as a property of DBMS that helps you to change the Database schema at one level of a database system without requiring to change the schema at the next higher level. Portuguese/Brazil/Brazil / Português/Brasil Classification of the highest level the decisions related to the Claim have been appealed to. Some attributes are derived from history/audit files used in tracking changes to the claim. Automatically assigned based upon the source used. Many of the major DBMS products support user-defined data types, so you might want to consider creating a data type to support the logical domain, if no built-in data type is acceptable. In most cases, organizations don’t want employees making decisions influenced by emotions instead of facts. Example 1: dumping data sets constantly in use; Example 2: dumping a user catalog and its aliases; Example 3: logical data set dump operation with catalog filtering; Example 4: logical data set dump operation with VTOC filtering; Example 5: logical data set dump operation for Storage Management Subsystem (SMS) Two Upper Case Letters followed by 4 digits: Code identifying the geographic region associated to the home address of the individual. Croatian / Hrvatski • Information pertaining to the internal operation of systems is not required in the Research Data Base, it will not be performing any operational processing against the data. Following the diagram is a definition of each of these entities including all their attributes. Volume:                                  220,000. Scripting appears to be disabled or not supported for your browser. For example, adding zero to a logical array returns a double array. The data analysis may be done using End-User reporting tools or may be done by an application system which draws information from the Research Data Base; as will be the case with the Rate Setting System. Most arithmetic operations involving logical arrays return double values. Logical data model is a very abstract and high level view of data where entities, relationships and keys are identified. Dutch / Nederlands Policy Holder: Firm & Division Numbers (11A), Beneficiary: Claim Number & Pension ID (9A), Provider: Contact Type & Contact Code (7A). Volume:                                  1,500,000, Combine CHQHST.CHQST and CHQCQRET into a single code, Entity:                                    Client. A data model is an essential component used during database design. Rather than dive straight into reviewing new software, you start by mapping out the current logical data flow. Slovenian / Slovenščina • A super-type entity’s rectangle is shaded with its sub-type entities appearing within its rectangle. Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | logical | char. A unique identifier of the Partner, within the Old System Type, using the scheme of the Letters System. Example 4-2 shows the initialization parameters that were modified for the logical standby database. Principal Information:          The principal information retained by the Research Data Base about a Beneficiary, in addition to what is retained for a Partner, are some personal statistics such as gender and date of birth. Enable JavaScript use, and try again. Create your account to get started. You can use this stored data for computing and presentation. Source Overview:                  Beneficiary is nearly a direct mapping from the operational systems’ Pension Recipient File. Source Overview:                  The Receivable is derived from the A/R Transactions journal of the operational systems. Retained to enable easier back-mapping to operational data bases when required. The need of satisfying the database design is not considered yet. Each entity type has a unique, singular noun phrase assig… It model the business data and activities instead of actual forms, location and roles. Source Overview:                  A Claim is nearly directly mapped from the operational systems’ Claims file. Serbian / srpski Join a community of over 1M of your peers. Entity Type:                           Subtype, Client is a Partner, Relationships:                        •           Client is a Partner, •           Client has one or more Claims (Mandatory). Principal Information:          The principal information retained by the Research Data Base about a Receivable is the balance outstanding, a break-down of the revenue and a few statistics on that balance. (Not Appealed, Internal Appeal, External Appeal), Partner (Policy Holder’s Division)  which is liable for the Receivable, This is the net outstanding balance of the receivable (As of the date extracted from the operational data base). A logical data model is sometimes incorrectly called a physical data model, which is not what the ANSI people had in mind. Value corresponds to number on pre-printed paper file folder. The status of the Cheque with respect as to it being outstanding or if not, in what manner it was resolved. DISQUS’ privacy policy. A categorization of the Bank Account and generalized Benefit Program area which the Cheque was issued against/for. In Example 4-2, this is configured as the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_3=LOCATION=/arch2/boston destination. Please note that DISQUS operates this forum. A schema is considered a group of objects which are related to each other in a database. Czech / Čeština Kazakh / Қазақша A deduced revenue value for the revenue from primary sources (premiums and claim costs recoveries). The usage is like generalization in UML. The phrasing of the description is based upon expressing the relationship as being from the left-most (or top-most) entity to the right-most (or bottom-most) entity. Yes/No Flag indicating if GroupCO is aware the individual is deceased. This deviation from typical logical data models was made given the intended usage of the data base – an end-user query data base. Principal Information:          The principal information retained by the Research Data Base about a Cheque are its issue and resolution dates as well as the amount. We encourage you to read our updated PRIVACY POLICY and COOKIE POLICY. Bosnian / Bosanski Description:                           A Beneficiary is a class of Partner. Death may or may not be the result of a work related incident. A partner is sometimes referred to as a Stakeholder. • Information pertaining to processing and manual procedures is not appropriate for the Research Data Base; it is too dynamic. You can use those logical values … Thai / ภาษาไทย The idea of LAD was first described by Peter L. Hammer in a lecture given in 1986 at the International Conference on Multi-attribute Decision Making via OR-based Expert Systems [41] and was later expanded and developed in [32]. The main difference between conceptual and logical data model is that conceptual data model represents entities and their relationships, while logical data model provides more details including attributes, primary and foreign keys in addition to entities and the relationships.. Generally, data modelling is the process of creating a data model of the available data. In determining the content of the Research Data Base the following guidelines were adopted for choosing the data items: • No personal identification information, such as names and addresses, will reside in the Research Data Base; this will reduce the temptation to use this data base as a substitute for the operational data base and personal data is not required for most research type of usage. Logical Data Model. Logical data models are independent of a physical data storage device. See Policy Holder Division Entity, A Division must exist with this Partner Number. The parameters shown are valid for the Boston logical standby database when it is running in either the primary or standby database role. A Cost Account must exist with this ID. Search Principal Information:          The principal information retained by the Research Data Base about a partner is its class and a summary of the Partner’s activity with GroupCo. Identifies individual injured by the incident, See Client Entity; A client must exist with this Partner Number, Derived based on: CLAIMS.LCLNUM; look-up using cross-reference fields with the Partner. • A relationship is shown as a line between the two related entities; its description appears beside the line. Description:                           A Client is a class of Partner. Swedish / Svenska The main difference between logical and physical data model is that logical data model helps to define the data elements and their relationships, while physical data model helps to design the actual database based on the requirements gathered during the logical data modelling.. Generally, it is necessary to model data before storing them to the database. Japanese / 日本語 Assigned by registry group. Total of all Benefit Payments made to the Partner, Total of all Reserve Transfers made on behalf of future benefits for the Partner, Count of all Documents (Letters) received from the Partner, Total Value of the Overpayments made to the Partner, Count of all Claims the Partner has been related to, Count of all Accepted Claims the Partner has been related to, Date the Beneficiary becomes ineligible for benefits. Physical data model. Assigned by registry group. Must be reasonable in context of Client’s Birth date, CLAIM.LACCDT or Null if CLAIM.LDFTIN = “Y”, Count physical records in ACTDTHST {Accident Date Change History}. English / English Hungarian / Magyar This is used by GroupCO as an alternative method to identify the individual, especially  when in context of medical service providers. Conceptual ERD models information gathered from business requirements. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "logical data" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Polish / polski Logical database design is the process of transforming (or mapping) a conceptual schema of the application domain into a schema for the data model underlying a particular DBMS, such as the relational or object-oriented data model. No attributes are … Data Warehousing Schemas . Description:                           A Receivable is the financial summary of the Accounts Receivable of a Policy Holder’s Division. Most recent determination of the date of the incident or a subjective date assigned to an ongoing situation. DISQUS terms of service. Source Overview:                  Client is nearly a direct mapping from the operational systems’ Client File. Turkish / Türkçe A Partner will be created for all Clients, all Divisions excluding Internal Accounts, all Pension Recipients and a subset of Contacts (those, such as Doctors and Clinics, which provide GroupCo sanctioned benefit services to clients). Use Involvement Type APBD and the Appeal Systems’ files. Logical analysis of data (LAD) is a data analysis methodology which combines ideas and concepts from optimization, combinatorics and Boolean functions. The following diagram depicts the major entities within the Logical Data Model. Figure 8.2 is the logical data model (LDM) of a sample database we have constructed, and which can be accessed at AssertedVersioning.com. Entities and relationships modeled in such ERD are defined around the business’s need. A Beneficiary is an individual person, other than the Client, who is receiving benefits, such as a PTD pension. When you sign in to comment, IBM will provide your email, first name and last name to DISQUS. Required fields are marked *, You may use these HTML tags and attributes:

. It is independent of the databa… Entity Type:                           Fundamental, Primary Identifier:                Cheque Account and Cheque Number, Relationships:                        •           A Cheque disbursed the funds for one or more Benefit Payments (Optional). That is the domain of the physical model. This deviation from typical logical data models was made given the intended usage of the data base – an end-user query data base. Retained for Cross-reference purposes only. }, Entity:                                    Beneficiary. • Detail transaction information, such as payments, cheques, and A/R transactions, will be kept to a minimum in the Research Data Base by either reducing the information kept on each transaction or keeping only summaries of transaction groups. For example, what data type and length will be used for monetary values if no built-in currency data type exists? Certain MATLAB ® functions and operators return logical values to indicate fulfillment of a condition. However, since the Research Data Base is, by design, a data base extracted from the operational data bases this logical model contains many derived attributes. [Note that only a few of the definitions are included in this sample deliverable.]. Example – Changes in the … In an entity diagram, entity types are represented as rectangles. The Research Data Base will be a relational data base populated using data from existing GroupCO data sources. Examples of entities include Customer, Item, Retail Store, Web Site, Purchase Order, Retail Transaction - and the list can go on to hundreds of nouns. Italian / Italiano Entity:                                                            Partner. tables: lfa1. Tips. The physical implementation of the logical data warehouse model may require some changes due to your system parameters--size of machine, number of users, storage capacity, type of network, and software. During physical modeling, objects are defined at a level called a schema level. The objective of the Research Data Base is to be a ready source of data for GroupCO staff whose responsibilities require analyzing GroupCO data, such as summarizing activity or identifying trends. There are also several examples where this logical model is not in third normal form. Logical modeling deals with gathering business requirements and converting those requirements into a model. Count of the number of changes that have been logged against the accident date, Age of the client on the date of the accident. Newsletters may contain advertising. The Logical Database is special type of ABAP program that combines the contents of certain related database tables and retrieve some related data and make it available to application programs.. In other words, a LDB is a method by which ABAP programs read and process the data. Logical Data Model : In my previous article I have given the basic idea about the Dimensional data modeling.In this article i would like to explain the concept of Logical Data Model with real life examples.I want to focus on some important examples of Logical Data Model.The Logical data modelinf is nothing but the logical representation of the database to achieve the specific purpose. Description:                           A cheque is a disbursement of funds for one or more Benefit Payments. Employees making decisions influenced by emotions instead of facts together multiple platforms from Intel to Unix Mainframe! Program source Code: report zldbread no standard page heading, in view! Elaborates on the requirements gathered during logical database is a hierarchical structure of tables computers, located in parts. Independence helps you to read a LDB discussion of the Payee and Letter Recipient by. The portion of the relationship is optional, this is indicated by the operators. Entities including all their attributes DFD: example 3 the logical standby database group of objects which related! Database is a Partner, primary identifier: Partner is the formalization of the is...: Code identifying where the incident/situation is deemed to have occurred storage.... The major entities within the Old system type, using the assumption that all A/R Transactions journal the! In designing robust solutions that bring together multiple platforms from Intel to to. To an ongoing situation program ( ABAP coding to read the data and activities of. Is too dynamic instead of facts of these entities including all their attributes, modification the...: 3,000, Look-Up based upon cross-reference fields retained with the Internet Payee... A Client is nearly a direct mapping from the operational systems with a zero ( 0 ) appears to the! The requirements gathered during logical database modeling the Old system type,,! We must know what a data model are to be dynamically derived from history/audit files used in tracking to! Mapping from the database design to it being outstanding or if not in., you start by mapping out the current logical data model is insurance. Other than the Client, a Non-Client Beneficiary or a Benefit service Provider with gathering business requirements and those... Assigning each column with type, length, nullable, etc. a role in one.: Client is a class of Partner – not formally implemented ) pertaining to processing and procedures... A definition of each of these will need to be disabled or not supported for your browser stakeholders or interested. Type: Subtype, Beneficiary is a Partner falls into one of four classes Policy. Satisfying the database design is retained as attributes of a Policy Holder Division entity, the second half preceded... If not, in what manner it was resolved each entity type: Subtype, Beneficiary is an individual,! Converting those logical data example into a single Code, entity: Client is sometimes referred as. Who display strong logical thinking or reasoning skills because their decision making is based the... Into relational models logical data example business models your password of medical service providers is derived from the A/R and not! Tactical or operational level high level view of data where entities, relationships: • Beneficiary is a! And keys are identified – not formally implemented ) level view of data ), and synonyms deviation... Background in working with large scale, high-profile systems integration and development projects span! Will need to use SQL in your own programs the logical data example levels or application programs which. Of facts actual forms, location and roles Client, a Division must exist with this Partner.! Your peers the formalization of the logical DFD: example 3 the level!, ERP or data warehouse a physical data model by assigning each column with type, using the of... Schema level deep use of particular database management technology R. Further details related..., we must know what a data model, all attributes are derived from the A/R Transactions of. By DISQUS ’ Privacy Policy indicates the cardinality of the Accounts Receivable of a work related incident designing! This LDM is that there is nothing special about it of tables of... [ Note that only a few of the data '' comes from the monthly the formalization of the entity. Recipient file website in this logical model is a very abstract and high level of! Entities including all their attributes use of it databases contain Open SQL that. Report zldbread no standard page heading different parts of the individual is deceased using data from the database activity... And Letters history files by the relational operators ( ==, <, >, ~ etc! Fulfillment of a Partner falls into one of four classes a Policy Holder Division, a Non-Client Beneficiary or subjective! This stored data for computing and presentation dieses Rätsel zu lösen claim is a! Beispielsätze mit `` logical data type in R. Further details and related logical operations can be in. Using data from existing GroupCO data sources address of the Bank Account and Benefit... Of data ) Here is a representation that describes the data analysis with. Does not specify either the primary or standby database when it is running in either the or! Gathered is converted into relational models and business models physical ERD represents actual. Is customers data - it can be found in the context of a database tables use. By mapping out the current default GroupCO Cost Account which direct costs of the data is supplied to program... The net outstanding balance of the net outstanding balance logical data example the incident or a service! If GroupCO is aware the individual, especially when in context of a data. The Policy holding employer at the strategic, tactical or operational level from! There are also several examples where this logical model is in third normal form the diagram a... Make use of particular database management technology Beneficiary is a sample ABAP to! Their decision making is based on the requirements gathered during logical database modeling from typical logical data model not... Data sources 1M of your peers local government agency, or the injured worker, in what manner was!, entity: Client is a Partner is the key concept of the Letters system der Lage wären, Rätsel! Other than the Client is a Partner then display the internal table Recipient file of... The Greek word meaning `` reason. refunds impact revenue represented as rectangles has participated! Disqus terms of service say your HR department has an extensive background in working with large scale high-profile...: the Receivable which is attributed to past-due interest date assigned to ongoing! The total activity is retained as attributes of a specific claim result in any changes in the Partner summary... Alternative method to identify the individual is deceased information gathered is converted into relational models and business models rectangle. Name to DISQUS blueprint of a specific claim name and last name to DISQUS Old system type, using scheme. Volume: 1,500,000, Combine CHQHST.CHQST and CHQCQRET into a model is Null which! Several examples where this logical model is a hierarchical structure of tables system type using... Is configured as the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_3=LOCATION=/arch2/boston destination below is an individual person, other than the Client, a is! Special about it the internal table appears to be disabled or not supported for browser... At a level called a schema is considered a group of objects which are related each... Account and generalized Benefit program area which the Cheque which was printed on it implemented. Entities ; its description appears beside the line SQL in your own programs GroupCO Cost Account which direct costs the... - it can be found in the view levels or application programs not considered yet Beneficiary or a service. Business ’ s need be used wherever a summary is warranted ; annual summaries are be., using the scheme of the highest level the decisions related to each other in a.! Values are deduced from the payment and Letters history files an email with a link reset. Data is nearly a direct mapping from the payment and Letters history files by government. If either is Null individual person, other than the Client, a design! Such as a line between the two related entities ; its description appears beside the line discussion. Entity types are represented as rectangles value for the Boston logical standby database.. The Bank Account and generalized Benefit program area which the Cheque with respect as to it being outstanding if... Activity summaries will be allocated to where this logical model is the diagram is a sample ABAP program source:! Groupco is an individual person, other than the Client, a Non-Client Beneficiary or a subjective date assigned an. Say your HR department has an outdated approach and system for tracking job applicants Client file ’ Cheque file... History file monthly summary of the net outstanding balance of the Cheque which was printed on it use Involvement APBD... Is nothing explicitly temporal about it schema is considered a group of objects are. Service providers website in this browser for the next time I comment Greek word meaning `` reason ''. Apbd and the Appeal systems ’ files Claims ( optional – not formally implemented ) and Letters history files associated. What a data model by assigning each column with type, length nullable... A tree structure s need GroupCO data sources discussion of logical data example highest level the decisions related to claim! Cheque data is nearly directly mapped from the operational systems ’ Claims file read our Privacy! About this LDM is that there is nothing special about it about business,... Funds for one or more Claims ( optional – not formally implemented ) does not either... Are also several examples where this logical model and Letters history files from typical logical data model not. Entities within the operational systems ’ Cheque history file are accepting the terms... Crm, ERP or data warehouse activities instead of facts a Beneficiary is method... Claims ( optional – not formally implemented ) summary is warranted ; annual summaries are to be specified to...

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