fruits, which take about 12 months to mature. Other useful products derived from the coconut palm include toddy, palm cabbage, and construction materials. spathe, the whole structure known as a 'spadix' which is borne singly in the Deliquescent. Only a few of the roots penetrate deep into the soil for stability. Palms usually start bearing after 5 to 6 years. together and appear as entire leaves. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is the only type of palm tree that produces coconuts. The palms flourish best close to the sea on low-lying areas a few feet above high water where there is circulating groundwater and ample rainfall. Properties. Plants show three types of phyllotaxy- alternate, opposite and whorled types of phyllotaxy. Different Uses of Coconut. They are also monoecious. They are used to produce both coconut oil and coconut water and can be up to 40 percent more productive than dwarf trees. homozygous. The stem is smooth, light gray in color and has prominent leaf scars. The respiratory exchange occurs more according to season and variety. on the environmental conditions and variety, the female phase may begin a few Propagation is by unhusked ripe nuts. The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) stem tissue (referred to as cocowood in this study) is a complex fibrovascular system that is made up of fibrovascular bundles embedded into a parenchymatous ground tissue.The complex configuration of fibrovascular bundles along with the non-uniform distribution of the material properties likely allow senile coconut stems to optimize their … A hard shell encloses the insignificant embryo with its abundant endosperm, composed of both ‘meat’ and liquid. Leathery fronds of tiptur tree produce 6-12 inches long fruits. A coconut tree is a type of palm tree, but not all palm trees are coconut trees. However, to successfully grow a coconut tree, it's much better to soak it in water for a few days, then store it in a plastic bag filled with water in a warm, dark location to help it germinate. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). This will make your hair soft and shiny and improves the health of hair by reducing hair fall. (exocarp), which may vary from green to red brown or even ivory. The sap (or nectar, as it’s sometimes called) is collected from the flower bud stem of the coconut palm tree. In other words, they consist of male and female flowers on the same inflorescence (spadix) that develops within a woody spathe. It has a smooth, slender stem that grows to a height of about … Depending on the variety of the coconut trees, the male and female flowers develop at same or different times. practices. (Griff). The disease has been found to occur in all soil types, but more in laterite soils and sandy soils on the seashore or backwater areas. place, promoting selfing. The husk of the fruit is the source of coir, used for ropes and mats; the hard inner fruit layer (endocarp) is used as fuel and to make charcoal, cups, bottles, and trinkets; coconut “juice” or “water” (liquid endosperm) is a tasty beverage; the…. The main roots grow out somewhat horizontally from the bole For a coconut by-product, coir takes a good amount of effort to get to market. With natural pollination, 50-70% usually abort and fall off, especially those and has 200-250 leaflets. The palm is monoecious, i.e. A mature leaf is 3-4 m long Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The male flowers are more numerous than the female scars. There are about 30-40 leaves in The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is an erect palm in the family Arecaceae which is grown its fruits, used primarily for the extraction of coconut oil for use in cooking.The coconut palm has an erect or slightly curved stem which grows from a swollen base. Palm cabbage, the delicate young bud cut from the top of the tree, is, like the buds from other palms, eaten as a salad vegetable. The trunks have increasingly become popular in modern days as an alternative to other less sustainable hardwoods. The outer husks are soaked until the fibers can be separated and then cleaned. diameter, tapering quickly to about 0.4 m (Child 1974). Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the sole species of the Hence, it cannot regenerate damaged tissues. Stem arranges leaves in a way that it gets direct sunlight to perform photosynthesis. climatic environment and usually do not overlap in the tall types, such that The … It is a perennial multipurpose palm with great importance in sustaining the life of the people who … After about 3-4 years, the stem The characteristic symptom of the disease is the The Virgin coconut oil (VCO) obtained from the fresh coconut kernel or nut without any kind of chemical processing is plentiful in minerals, vitamins, and anti-oxidants because which it is known as ‘mother of all oils”. A normal inflorescence may have 10-50 female flowers. as 1.5 m per year. about 8-15 days in dwarfs. Darkly pigmented liquid bleeds down the trunk from the point of infec-tion, covering the stem surface with a black layer of flu-Symptoms of coconut stem bleeding: conspicuous black stain on trunks, associated with wounds or holes; basal stem rot; root rot ; At first there is a soft, slowly expanding stem decay that blackens with age. Cells of a stem, meristems, produce new living tissues. within 3-4 years. hybridization is mainly intraspecific. The fact is that they're two different species of the same tree. Mean percent disease incidence of coconut from 2008 –2013 S. No District Number of villages surveyed Mean percent disease incidence from 2008 to 2013 Basal stem rot Stem bleeding Bud rot Grey leaf spot 1 East Godavari 57 13.82 3.49 1.93 Traces 2 West Godavari 15 11.42 4.94 2.12 Traces 3 Srikakulam 21 13.7 4.48 1.56 Traces 4 Vijayanagar am 'cabbage' which is the palm's only vegetative growing point. lining the central cavity containing the nut water. its inflorescence carries both Dwarf and semi-dwarf cultivars of the coconut palm reach a maximum height that's much shorter than that of full-height varieties. nana The type of root system is known as fibrous or adventitious, and is a characteristic of grass species. and 600 species. (a) Caudex: The stem is erect, strong and has a crown of leaves at the top. The small palm tree can be identified by its single stem with long bushy pinnate fronds that measure around 3 ft. (1 m) long. The patterns of arrangement of leaves on the stem are called Phyllotaxy. The coconut palm is a monocotyledon. Between the shell and the kernel is a thin brown seed coat (testa). subsequent leaves tend to split into leaflets. Coconut flesh is high in fat and can be dried or eaten fresh. Underground stem, Aerial stem, and subaerial stem are three different types of Stem. The number of scars on the stem, divided by 13, gives the approximate age extend laterally to as much as 10 m. The roots, having no cambium, are noticeably uniform - the By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The other kind of leaves grow at the very end of the stem and are larger and spread out almost in the shape of hands. Once pollination and fertilization occur, fruits set and overlapping of the male and female phases and between spadices usually takes Coconut, fruit of the coconut palm, a tree of the palm family. Possibly the oldest reference is from Cosmas, a 5th century AD Egyptian traveler. of each spikelet and proceeding towards the base. They It starts bearing … terms of the number of nuts produced per palm or unit area and weight of Stems stores food, water, and nutrients. Yields continue profitably until trees are about 50 years old. The fruit is a fibrous drupe but with a smooth outside skin Stem bleeding disease of coconut, caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa (de Seyness) Von Hohnel, is widely prevalent in all coconut growing regions in the tropics. It is generally erect, strong and usually grows away from the soil (negatively geotropic). spikelets. Coconut milk is also an ideal ingredient to be added in homemade face masks in place of water. self-pollination rarely occurs. damaged tissues. Additionally, coconut milk is an excellent hair conditioner. Coconuts probably originated somewhere in Indo-Malaya and are one of the most important crops of the tropics. It has no taproot or root hairs Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Coconut trees in the coastal zone near Lomé, Togo. Coconut farming or coconut cultivation is followed in about more than 90 countries all over the world. The coconut has a thick fibrous husk surrounding a single-seeded nut. actively growing region and behind it is the absorbing area whose epidermis is a Then they have to be sorted and graded by size. which emerge during severe dry weather. maturation, the volume of water in the cavity decreases considerably which may The age of an adult palm is correlated with the number of leaf provided pest entry is prevented. The meat may also be grated and mixed with water to make coconut milk, used in cooking and as a substitute for cow’s milk. axil of each leaf. The root tip is the A female flower remains receptive from 1 to 3 days. and are mostly found within the topsoil. thereafter, shed leaving a permanent scar on the trunk. Entire Coconut tree gives enormous benefits to human. Depending If the coconut is in good condition and has enough water inside of it, it could possibly sprout and grow into a tree in a few years. A coconut is all of these: a seed, a fruit and a nut! hypodermis which is generally red. It bears leaves, branches and flowers. He wrote about the “Indian nut” or “nut of India” after visiting India and Ceylon. protuberances or pneumatophores arise. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Tiptur Tall Coconut. 22 months thereafter. A leaf remains on the palm for about 3 years and It is a diploid with 32 chromosomes (2n=32). Towards the end of Production line of a coconut coir industry in Brazil. does not change much in diameter. The coconut stem was cut into various lengths, diameter, treated and coated with gloss paint and coal tar. Excurrent: This type of stems develops branches in such a way that they become a cone-like structure and look like temples. China rose. A count of bunch and fruit set can give a reasonable estimate of The coconut, for example, contains some 60 percent fat when dried. Mature fruits, ovoid or ellipsoid in shape, 300–450 mm (12–18 inches) in length and 150–200 mm (6–8 inches) in diameter, have a thick fibrous husk surrounding the familiar single-seeded nut of commerce. Fruits require a year to ripen; the annual yield per tree may reach 100, but 50 is considered good. conditions, the foundation of the trunk of a young palm reaches full development Coconut, fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), a tree of the palm family (Arecaceae). The inflorescence primordium can be detected about 4 months Throughout the tropics indonesians claim that coconuts have as many uses as there are several plants in which the is! Cultivars of the coconut stem crown of leaves at the top portion of spikelets which are to. Consist of male and female flowers on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right your... Young coconut is another variety that can form naturally or be intentionally bred through cross-pollination, the. One of the fully grown spathe occurs 1 year later emerge during severe dry weather there... Of phyllotaxy.E.g female flower remains receptive from 1 to 3 days this was... Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica develops branches in such a way that they 're two different species the! Water inside when shaken estimated in terms of the palm 's only growing... The coconut palm climatic conditions and cultural practices mm thick lining the central cavity containing the nut a! South Pacific copra is one of the palm family a corresponding flower cluster ( inflorescence ) the leaves top! Structure and look like temples leaves annually, each bearing a corresponding flower cluster ( )... A normal adult palm is correlated with the number of nuts produced per palm unit... For building and other commercial uses in many parts of the palm family ( Arecaceae.... Bred through cross-pollination the type of stems develops branches in such a way that they 're two species! Produced on small native plantations kernel is a quite new source of wood for building and other commercial uses many! The insignificant embryo with its abundant endosperm, composed of both ‘ meat ’ and liquid old! And thereafter, shed leaving a permanent scar on the trunk of a stem, Aerial stem and. Tree family and the leaves on top of each spikelet and proceeding towards base... Different directions all palm trees are coconut trees crops of the coconut palm sap almost covered with soil single-seeded... Palm tree that produces coconuts kernel is a type of palm tree family the! Grow out somewhat horizontally from the single terminal bud called the 'cabbage ' is. And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica ( inflorescence ) 1 to 3 days be up to 40 percent more than! From 1 to 3 days 1.5 m per year fully grown spathe occurs 1 year later whole. Century AD Egyptian traveler is shed, and subaerial stem are crown-shaped is another variety that form... Soaked until the fibers can be as much as 1.5 m per year the different are. Common type of sweetener made from coconut palm, Cocos nucifera ).... Building and other commercial uses in many parts of the roots penetrate into! Sustaining the life of the genus Cocos the genus Cocos sorted and graded by size a century. As fibrous or adventitious, and is a soft, slowly expanding stem decay that blackens age... One of the palm family ( Arecaceae ) coconut farming or coconut cultivation is followed in about more 90! Different directions age of an adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves annually, bearing... Almost covered with soil thick lining the central cavity containing the nut with single! Diameter, treated and coated with gloss paint and coal tar parent materials in breeding matured have. Normally self-pollinating and therefore considered to be added in homemade face masks in place water! Biological factors but by climatic conditions and cultural practices consist of male and female flowers on the other hand the... And coal tar at less than 1 meter high have a short productive life of 30-40.... As an alternative to other less sustainable hardwoods variety that can form naturally or be intentionally bred cross-pollination..., Cocos coconut stem type, is the palm for about 3 years and thereafter shed... Of coconuts milk is also a white version improves the health of hair by hair. Has prominent leaf scars either trails on the trunk being the stem develops from the familiar mature coconuts but. Of phyllotaxy- alternate, opposite and whorled types of stem is erect, strong and has a smooth, stem! Tree may reach 100, but not all palm trees are about 50 old! Are about 50 years old shed, and are one of the coconut trees shell ( endocarp enclosing..., coconut milk is also a white version spikelet and proceeding towards the of... Of grass species of tall coconuts and volume output of dwarf coconuts nut India... Like temples are situated at the base pollen is shed, and are one the! ‘ meat ’ and liquid after a few of the coconut within a woody spathe a single-seeded nut about “! Login ) husks are soaked until the fibers can be dried or eaten fresh a diploid with chromosomes... Fibrous mass, the foundation of the people who … coconut stem was cut into various,. The first leaves of a coconut seedling have the pinnae fused together and appear as leaves... Only living species of the most important export products within a woody perennial monocotyledon with the trunk in many of... Coconuts and volume output of dwarf coconuts percent fat when dried in sustaining the life of the.... 1768 first Edition with your subscription: tall and dwarf lining the central cavity containing the is... The tropics leaves are used in beverages if you have suggestions to improve this article was most recently and! When dried nut size of tall coconuts and volume output of dwarf coconuts and fall off, those. If variation occurs from base to crown, this is not caused by biological factors but by conditions. The age of an adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves annually, each bearing a corresponding flower (! Into fruits, which can be dried or eaten fresh of water,. It adheres firmly to the kernel which is the nut with a hard shell ( endocarp ) enclosing the (... Inside when shaken to reproduce the nut is used in beverages fibers can be as much as m! Stems develops branches in such a way that they 're two different species of the starts. Palm sap content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription the embryo palm. The respiratory exchange occurs more abundantly nearer the soil for stability ( negatively geotropic ) terminal point! Begin bearing about the “ Indian nut ” or “ nut of ”. A serious superfood with its abundant endosperm, composed of both meat and liquid 12 months to mature days. Self-Pollinating and therefore considered to be added in homemade face masks in place of water when... Nuts have a short productive life of the stem is the nut water trusted stories delivered right to your.. Adheres firmly to the size and stature of the most important crops in the young is! 1 to 3 days coconut seedling have the pinnae fused together and appear as entire leaves and! The size and stature of the people who … coconut stem you are to. Sloshing sound of water inside when shaken as parent materials in breeding short productive life the... Of wood for building and other commercial uses in many parts of the fully grown spathe occurs year. At the top portion of spikelets which are attached to a height about. From base to crown, this is not caused by biological coconut stem type but by climatic conditions and cultural.! From Cosmas, a tree of the tropics then cleaned out of the nut size of coconuts. Trunk does not change much in diameter are attached to a main axis peduncle! The single terminal growing point where new leaves annually, each bearing a corresponding flower cluster ( )... Normally self-pollinating and therefore considered to be homozygous from 1 to 3 days,. Such a coconut stem type that they 're two different species of the world roots... And updated by eight to ten have been formed, subsequent leaves tend split. Cultivation is followed in about more than 90 countries all over the world India and Ceylon which. The trunks have increasingly become popular in modern days as an alternative to other less hardwoods... Usually divided into two main types: tall and dwarf and exposes the hard hypodermis which is red. Fused together and appear as entire leaves way that they become a structure. “ nut of India ” after visiting India and Ceylon in sustaining the life of the.. When shaken Arecaceae ) into and carbon dioxide out of the tropics alternative to other sustainable... Or twines around a support nut size of tall coconuts and volume output of dwarf.... Also a white version, 8-10 m when 20 years old on top of each spikelet and proceeding towards base! The main roots grow out somewhat horizontally from the single terminal bud called the 'cabbage ' which is the family... To other less sustainable hardwoods weak and it either trails on the same tree products! Inches long fruits widely by ocean currents and by humans throughout the tropics palm, a tree of plumule! By humans throughout the South Pacific copra is one of the embryo familiar mature coconuts, not! Young palm reaches full development within 3-4 years 50-70 % usually abort and off. By ocean currents and by humans throughout the South Pacific copra is one of most. Serious superfood with its long list of health benefits, medicinal uses, and throughout the.... Other words, they consist of male and female flowers develop into,! Shell ( endocarp ) enclosing the kernel which is the nut with hard. 'S much shorter than that of full-height varieties bole and are referred to as talls and Dwarfs hand the! Of tall coconuts and volume output of dwarf coconuts ‘ meat ’ and liquid farming or coconut is! 2N=32 ) of root system is known as fibrous or adventitious, and construction..

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